4 April 2004

Indonesian elections

The parliamentary numbers are drawn from Elections around the world. The interpretation is mine.

Megawati Soekarnaputri (2001) PDIP
The president is elected for a five year term by popular vote. The government is dominated by the PDIP. Gus Dur (also named Abdulrahman Wahid) was elected by the Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (People's Consultative Assembly) in 1999 and later removed from office and replaced by Megawati, his vice-president. The MPR was changed in 2003 to comprise the elected members of the DPR and DPD. Its powers have been reduced greatly. The first presidential election by popular vote is in June.


The Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (Council of People's Representatives) has 550 deputies elected for a five year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies.

There also a new senate, the Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Council of Regional Representatives), with 4 members from each province elected on a non-partisan basis.

The parties in the current DPR are:

  • Partai Demokrasi Indonesia - Perjuangan (Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle) PDIP 37.4% 154 deputies

  • Partai Golongan Karya (Party of Functional Groups). This was the ruling party of the Suharto dictatorship's New Order Golkar 20.9% 120 deputies

  • Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (National Awakening Party). Former president Gus Dur heads this moderate Muslim party. He was elected by the MPR in 1999 on a deal brokered by Amien Rais and the Muslim parties. PKB 17.4% 51 deputies.

  • Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (United Development Party, moderate Muslim) .The PPP was one of the two licit opposition parties under the New Order. PPP 10.7% 58 deputies.

  • Partai Amanat Nasional (National Mandate Party, moderate Mulsim) MPR Speaker Amien Rais leads the PAN. PAN 7.3% 35 deputies.

  • Partai Bulan Bintang (Crescent Star Party) PBB 1.8% 14 deputies

  • Partai Keadilan (Justice Party) PK 1.3% 6 deputies

  • Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan (Justice and Unity Party) PKP 0.9% 6 deputies

  • Partai Nahdlatul Umat (Nahdlatul Ummat Party) PNU 0.6% 3 deputies

  • Partai Persatuan (United Party) PP 0.5% 1 deputy

  • Partai Demokrasi Indonesia (Democratic Party of Indonesia) PDI 0.4% 3 deputies. The PDI was one of the two licit opposition parties under the New Order. The Suharto regime intervened to sack Megawati as party president. She then formed the PDI-P as an independent party that went on to win the 1999 election.

  • Nasional Indonesia Front Marhaenis (Indonesian National Party Front Marhaenis) PNIFM 0.4% 1 deputy

  • Partai Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Party)
    PNI 0.4% 1 deputy

  • Partai Nasional Indonesia Massa Marhaen (Indonesian National Party Massa Marhaen) PNIMM 0.4% 1 deputy

  • Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (Indonesian United Islam Party)
    PSII 0.3% 1 deputy

The declared presidential candidates are:

  • President Megawato Sukarnoputri PDI-P
  • DPR Speaker Tanjong Akbar Golkar
  • Ex Chief of the armed forces Wiranto Golkar
  • Siti 'Tutut' Hardijanti Rukmana (Suharto's daughter and last social welfare minister)
  • MPR Speaker Amien Rais PAN
  • Expresident Gus Dur PKB
  • Ex security minister Bambang Yudhoyono

The legislative election will show the party's current standings and give some sign of who can form a winning coalition. Megawati hopes to run with Akbar Tanjung as her vice-presidential candidate and combine the PDI-P/Golkar vote.

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